Parallel Ethereal World
Physical Model of the Parallel Ethereal World
Dr Alex Katsman (May, 2004)
At the present time there is a lot of evidence that a certain part of the universe is invisible to us. The most important facts are connected with the survival of a human mind after the physical death of the body. Experimental studies regarding contact with "dead" people were performed by two outstanding scientists, Sir William Crookes  and Sir Oliver Lodge , over one hundred years ago. Similar experiments were performed by a number of researchers in our time . The first reasonable explanation of the results was apparently suggested by Oliver Lodge: this invisible part of the world operates at higher frequencies than the ones in the world we are able to sense. Many investigators support this idea. However, the theoretical basis regarding such a world is absent. Most authors think of this world as a "spirit" world.
A substantial step in understanding the universe was taken by Ronald Pearson . Pearson's theory is based on the idea that when two kinds of primary particles are present, collisions and the exchange of energy between them cause the creation of a neuron-like structure. This theory has opened a new field for modeling and explaining so-called "paranormal" phenomena. The wave nature of our world, which is closely linked to Pearson's theory, can be used to explain the existence of parallel worlds. Such parallel worlds are material to the same degree as our sensed world is. This means that they have the same wave nature with the same (or similar) physical laws.
With this idea as a starting point, one can develop a physical, quantum mechanics model of the higher frequency, parallel (ethereal) world that is usually invisible for us.
Based on experimental evidence, the following main principles were used in the developing the physical model:
According to Pearson's theory, all energy in the universe is kinetic, and particles which have a non-zero rest mass consist of photon-like (or neutrino-like) particles with zero rest mass moving at the speed of light. The same conclusion was made by G. Shipov who developed the theory of the physical vacuum .
The energy of the wave package can be
found as follows:
where is the average, carrying frequency, , where h is
Since is constant for all
average frequencies of photons (as was found in
experiments), it should be concluded that for all photons, of
any kind. Another consequence of eq.(4) is that is inversely
proportional to the speed of light, c, and
that their product is constant:
It should be noted that this product is
very important because it determines the elementary
electrical charge, e:
Let us now assume that the speed of
light depends on structure and properties of the
medium (ether). According to Pearson's theory, the
ether (or i-ther) is an inhomogeneous medium
consisting of two kinds of particles moving with
different velocities. In this case the wave package
can be constructed from harmonic waves spreading in a
sub-space of a certain type of particle. Spreading
speeds of different wave packages can be different (in
the same manner as speeds of sound waves in a solid
consisting of several types of atoms). So we may
assume that at least two kinds of photons exist, and
the corresponding speeds of light, c1 and c2,
may differ substantially:
So, Planck's constant decreases with an
increase in the speed of light. The carrying frequency
of the wave package increases accordingly:
According to the famous equation:
Thus, we have two kinds of photons, with the same range of energies and sizes, but with substantially different frequencies, momentums and masses, and moving with different speeds.
Assuming that typical energies of free elementary particles in both cases have the same order we may conclude that typical frequencies of particles in the second world (we'll name this the ethereal world) are much higher than ones in our first, "physical" world:
This is true for all elementary particles (electrons, protons, neutrino, etc.): typical frequencies of the moving elementary particles increase proportionally to the speed of light and their masses decrease proportionally to the square of the light speed.
New electrons, protons and neutrons may
form new atoms in the second world. Since the
elementary charge, e, does not change (see
eq.(6)), the geometrical structure of atoms is
conserved. For example, Bohr radius, which determines
the hydrogen atom size, does not change:
This is true also for the Bohr magneton,
which determines the magnetic properties of elementary
particles and atoms:
Energy levels and the radii of the
circular orbits of the electron in the hydrogen atom
are computed by the formulas:
As can be seen, they are the same in both worlds.
An atom can absorb a discrete portion
(quantum) of electromagnetic energy (photon) equal to
the difference between the levels of energy in
spectrum (16) if an electron "jumps" from a closer
orbit to a farther one. An excited atom radiates a
photon when an electron returns to a closer orbit from
a farther one. The magnitude of the emitted or
absorbed quantum of energy,?k, is
given by the condition:
The same conditions hold valid for many-electron atoms.
So, the energy spectrum of
electromagnetic waves - photons - emitted and absorbed
by atoms in our world and in the supposed ethereal one
is the same. But the frequency spectrums are
This is most likely the main reason for the fact that we cannot sense or record the electromagnetic waves from the ethereal world with our devices: photons emitted by ethereal atoms have appropriate energies, but much higher frequencies. An atom as an oscillatory system can absorb energy of the waves with resonance frequencies only. This means that our atoms cannot absorb photons emitted by analogous ethereal atoms. On the other hand, ethereal photons with appropriate (low) frequencies (created, for example, during braking of ethereal electrons) may be absorbed by our atoms, but they have too little energy (because of small Planck's constant) in comparison with "our" photons, and transfer less momentum than "our" photons by a factor of n2. This makes it difficult to recognize them in the total signal.
Thus, the parallel, ethereal world has
the following features:
The last statement should be considered the most carefully because of its great importance. It is based on the assumption that the world has a fully wave nature, and all elementary particles are constructed from photon-like or neutrino-like particles with zero rest mass. In this case, two different wave objects may occupy the same place. They influence each other, leading to an interference picture, only in the case where their frequencies are similar. In the quantum mechanics language the condition for mutual influence of atoms is the appropriate frequencies of the electromagnetic fields carried by the photons which are absorbed and emitted by those atoms.
In ordinary life we feel surrounding things due to electromagnetic interaction between our own atoms (in our eyes, skin, and neurons, for example) and photons emitted by atoms of surrounding bodies. Since our atoms cannot absorb photons emitted by ethereal atoms, the ethereal world is invisible to us.
The second type of interaction we have with surrounding bodies is gravitational. We feel the attraction of the Earth, and most likely the main reason for our need of energy is the necessity to overcome the force of gravitation. It is interesting to note that the evolution of life on Earth can be considered as a history of struggle for food that, in turn, is required for the energy needed to overcome gravitation! All our digestive, blood and respiratory systems are needed to provide energy for muscle systems - again - to overcome gravitation!
In the supposed ethereal world, the gravitational forces are very weak. Actually, the gravitational force between two bodies,, is proportional to the product of their masses, m1m2, and in the ethereal world it will be n4 times less than the force between analogous bodies in the our world. For example, if n=100,. It means that living etherians, if they exist, don't need energy to overcome gravitational attraction.
What would life be like in the ethereal world? We may suppose that etherians have no problems with food because they don't need nearly as much energy as Earth people. They may possibly receive appropriate chemical energy (mainly for brain and nervous activity) immediately from electromagnetic fields (fluxes of ethereal photons) and neutrino flows. If so, they don't need digestive and blood systems, nor a respiratory system. They can move very quickly because of the absence of gravitational forces and atmosphere resistance, small mass and high light velocity. So, they have no problems with territory and do not struggle for their existence. At least, not in the same way as in our world.
Can we interact with this world? Might there exist a number of parallel worlds with different constants c and ? These are interesting questions...
Parallel Ethereal World and the Principle of Relativity
According to the Special Theory of Relativity, we live in a 4-dimensional world in which three coordinates are spatial, and the forth one is connected with time, t, and should be taken in the form (ict), where c is the light velocity and i is the imaginary unit. In this space every material body or system has a 4-dimensional energy-momentum vector, (cpx, cpy, cpz, imc2). The square of this vector is invariant for all inertial (that is, non-accelerated) frames of reference:
If, for example, a frame of reference is
connected with the particle moving along axis X with
the velocity v, coordinates and momentums in
this new reference are connected with ones in the
initial frame of reference by the Lorentz
The speed of light, c, is the same for all such frames of reference, independent of the motion of the observer, and it is the maximum possible velocity for all material bodies in our world.
Special theory of relativity does not consider, however, the possibility of relative motion along the forth, time-axis. Our world can be considered as moving along this axis with the speed of light.
Let us introduce a new frame of
reference which moves along the time-axis with the
speed c1. Coordinate transformation
which conserves a square of energy-momentum vector is
The last equation requires also the
change of masses:
that exactly coincides with eqs.(10). In
this case the square of energy-momentum vector is
invariant of the transformation (22):
Velocities of a body in the new and the
old frames of reference are connected by the
So, we obtained the same results as previously, eqs.(10), (11). The new result is the change in the rate of time: with increasing the light velocity the rate of time decreases. But what is the physical meaning of time?
We use time to characterize: a) space
transference of material objects; b) the rate of
processes such as transformations of elementary
particles, nuclear and chemical reactions.
Transference in space is characterized by the product
(v×t). According to eqs. (22) and (25), this product
does not change:
As about nuclear and chemical reactions
as well as transformations of elementary particles,
their rates, apparently, are also connected with the
light velocity in the given frame of reference,
namely, they are proportional to it. If K is the rate
of a certain reaction in the system with the light
velocity c, and K1 is the rate of the same
reaction in the system with the light velocity c1,
the following equality can be assumed:
and the quantity of the reaction productsdoes not change. By this means the slow down of the rate of time is compensated by acceleration of all processes with increasing the light velocity. As a result, all processes, including vital activity, occur in the same manner, in both frames of reference, in accordance with General Principle of Relativity.
The principle of relativity, in the most
general form, including acceleration and rotation of
frames of reference, was taken into account by G.
Shipov in his theory of physical vacuum .
vacuum equations have allowed the General Theory of
Relativity to be combined with electrodynamics and
with quantum field theory. It turned out that these
equations do not contain any universal constants such
as light velocity, Planck's constant or elementary
electrical charge. Certain combinations of these
constants should be introduced into the equations.
Using a certain velocity of light, c, Shipov
determines a density of matter as following :
where Tim is the energy-momentum tensor, gim is the metric tensor. Transformation of the coordinate frame of reference (22) conserves the value of T, so the density of matter is inversely proportional to the square of light velocity, in accordance with our assumption (23). So, an existence of material systems with a different velocity of light does not contradict the General Principle of Relativity used in the theory of physical vacuum .
Existence of the Second Body
According to many religious doctrines, and in the views of many parapsychologists, mediums and extrasensors, we possess a second body, or soul, which leaves our physical body at the moment of death. Some people have recounted that they saw themselves from above while in the state of clinical death.
Let us assume that we really possess a second body that exists in the parallel ethereal world. Let us also assume that this second body is an exact (or almost exact) copy of our first, "physical" body: it consists of analogous atoms, molecules, cells, organs, a brain and nervous systems. What should be the mass of this body? According to eq.(10),
There is some evidence that at the moment of death the weight of the human body decreases by several grams. If we associate this decrease with the release of the second body, it can be used to evaluate n. For example, if Mbody=80kg and ?M=Msecond=2g,. Unfortunately, the data for weight decrease is not reliable because the weight may decrease for a number of different reasons. But it gives us a principal possibility to evaluate n and correspondingly the speed of light in the ethereal world.
The statement that the second body is
tightly bound to the "physical" body and leaves it
during death leads to the following conclusions:
The existence of this force of interaction can be connected with energy flows both in our physical body and in the second body while we are alive. However, this will be the subject of future work.
The invisible part of the universe has a physical structure similar to the world we sense: the matter is built from atoms, which, in turn, are constructed from nucleons and electrons, with the same elementary electrical charge. The size, structure and energy spectrum of ethereal atoms and presently detected atoms are the same.
The ethereal world is invisible to us because of different "universal" constants such as the speed of light, c, and Planck's constant, h, while their product, c×h, which determines the elementary charge, is conserved. The ethereal speed of light is much higher than the one in our world, and Planck's constant is much smaller. This leads to higher frequencies in the ethereal elementary particles, and in particular, photons, which realize the electromagnetic interaction between atoms. Our atoms cannot absorb ethereal photons, and the ethereal world remains invisible to us.
There apparently exists gravitational interaction between the ethereal world and our world, but this interaction is very small because of the very small masses of ethereal bodies.
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