HAARP Like Facility
Ionospheric Laboratory
China Research Institute of Radiowave Propagation (CRIRP)
Ionospheric Laboratory, Xinjiang (Sinkiang) Region
40°24'15.91"N, 93°38'09.74"E
This facility is closest to Urumchi (Urumqi), Xinjiang Region, China

Ionospheric sounding network and data in China

Wu Jian   Jiao Peinan   Xiao Zuo   Wan Weixing   Liu Ruiyuan   Zhao Zhengyu 
LEME, China Res. inst. of Radiowave Propagation, Beijing;

This paper appears in: Antennas, Propagation and EM Theory, 2000. Proceedings. ISAPE 2000. 5th International Symposium on
Publication Date: 2000
On page(s): 688-691
Meeting Date: 08/15/2000 - 08/18/2000
Location: Beijing, China
ISBN: 0-7803-6377-9
References Cited: 10
INSPEC Accession Number: 6963766
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/ISAPE.2000.894880
Current Version Published: 2002-08-06


Ionospheric sounding has been conducted routinely for more than 60 years in China. A complete network of ground-based sounding sites covers the Chinese subcontinent, including vertical and oblique sounding, GPS measurement of ionospheric TEC and scintillation, VLF receivers measuring the lower ionosphere etc. In this paper, we give a picture of the sounding network, equipment situation and data acquired with emphasis on vertical ionosonde network
The Ionospheric Sounding in China
The ionospheric sounding in China has a long history and has a well spread network, which is still keeping routine operation, providing a good background to do the ionospheric long-term prediction and short-term forecasting. The ionospheric sounding in China started in early 1940s (Wu et al., 2002). Fig.1 shows the ionospheric sounding network in China. The sounding equipments and operation periods are listed in Table 1. Among them 11 ionosonde stations are still in operation in China mainland. The data at integer UT hours are sent to forecasting center in Beijing twice a day through Internet. 
There is also a daily exchange of ionospheric data with Russian (for 4 stations) and with Australia (for 4 stations) respectively. A method of predicting the ionospheric F2 layer in the Asia and Oceania Region (AOR Method [Sun X.R., 1987]) was adopted as a regional ionospheric long-term prediction method in China and its surrounding area. Then this was cooperated with the International Reference Ionosphere and became the Reference Ionosphere in China (CRI) [Liu et al., 1994].

File http://www.irf.se/~christer/China_IONO.doc


Preliminary studies on ionospheric forecasting in China and its surrounding area

R. Liua, Corresponding Author Contact Information
E-mail The Corresponding Author, Z. Xua, J. Wub, S. Liua, B. Zhanga and G. Wangb

Polar Research Institute of China, 451 Jinqiao Road., Shanghai 200136, 
China bChina Research Institute of Radiowave Propagation, Xinxiang 453003, China


The ionospheric sounding in China has a long history and has a well spread network, which is still keeping routine operation. The autocorrelation method is adopted for the short-term forecasting of ionospheric characteristics. The performances of the forecasts at Chongqing have been examined for different combination of parameters and algorithms by estimating the prediction errors. Preliminary results show that for predictions of more than 10 h ahead the “at once” method with f0F2 is preferable. For predictions of less than 10 h ahead the “iterations” method with View the MathML source is the best. A corrected method of the International Reference Ionosphere used in China region (the CRI model) is described in this paper. By introducing an effective ionospheric index Ice into the CRI model the regional forecasting could be realized.

SOURCE: Science Direct

Home Address:
National Key Lab of Electromagnetic Environment, China Research Institute of Radiowave Propagation (CRIRP), P.O. Box 6301, Beijing 102206, China,



Zhong Shan Antarctic Polar Station (China)
69º 22' 23.63" S 76º 22' 19.11" E


Of the two Chinese scientific stations in Antarctic, the one in Zhong Shan is closely conjugated with the Svalbard area in the northern hemisphere. This makes it a valuable place for coordinated measurements both with the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR) and the Polar satellite. In 1991 a cooperation agreement was signed between the Ionospheric Laboratory of the China Research Institute of Radiowave Propagation (CRIRP) in Xinxiang, China, and the Department of Physical Sciences, University of Oulu, Finland, to build an auroral photometer system for the Zhong Shan station (Kaila et al, 1997). The multichannel scanning photometer agreed upon was constructed in Oulu by April 1995, and delivered to China in May. Measurements were supposed to start in March 1997, to be continued during the local winter time until October (the same schedule of measurements is planned for every year). However, due to problems mentioned above, the current status of the system is unknown!

The Zhong Shan Station, Antarctica

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