HAARP Like Facility
Sheshan, Shanghai, China
31°5′41.98″N, 121°11′29.72″E
上海佘山天文台 - Shanghai Sheshan Observatory - by chris_lee

Sheshan, Zo-Se, Sta.Shanghai Observatory(former Jesuit Observatory)

The Search for the Ionospheric Sounding Network in China

The Sheshan VLBI station
The Sheshan 25m radio telescope is an alt-az antenna run by SHAO.
The telescope is located in the Sheshan area, about 40km west of Shanghai.

The radio telescope has been in operation since 1987, and it is one of the five main facilities of the Chinese National Astronomical Observatory. The station is a member of the European VLBI Network (EVN), the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS), and the Asia Pacific Telescope

The telescope is located at longitude 121°11' 59" E and latitude 31°05' 57" N, 5m above sea level. Some parameters of the antenna are listed below:

  • Diameter: 25m
  • Antenna type: Kashegelun Beam wave-guide
  • Seat-rack type: Azimuth-pitching ring
  • Main surface precision: 0.65 mm (rms)
  • Point precision: 20" (rms)
  • Rolling range: Azimuth : -860 ~to~ 4250; Elevation: 50 ~to~ 880
  • Maximum rolling speed: Azimuth : 0.550/sec; Elevation: 0.280/sec
  • Five bands of VLBI observation are available at Sheshan. These are: L band (18 cm), C band (6 cm), K band (1.3 cm), and S/X band (13/3.6 cm). The parameters of the receivers are listed in Table 1. The observation band, frequency range, and the efficiency of each band are given in the first three columns respectively. The type, polarization model, and system temperature are given in the final three columns. The L, C, and K bands are used for astrophysics, and the S/X double frequencies used for geodesy. The X band is also sometimes used for astrophysical observations.
  • The X-band receiver system was upgraded to a wide-band system in December 2000. Thus the Sheshan station has been able to participate in the wide-band geodynamics experiments of IVS since 2001.
  • A new twin-polarization receiver for the C band is currently under construction with the cooperation of ASTRON (the Netherlands), and will be available in mid 2004.
  • The upgrade of the frequency switching system of Sheshan station was finished by the end of 2002. The switch of frequency between any two of the C, K, and S/X bands can now be carried out in only three minutes. The system is thus very useful for multi-frequency observations.
The VLBI recording System:

There are three recording systems at the Sheshan VLBI station (VLBA, MKIV, and S2). Both thick and thin tapes are available for the VLBA and MKIV recording systems. The MKIV upgrade was completed successfully in 2000, and the Sheshan station has participated in the two-head recording test at 512Mbit/s carried out by the EVN organization in October 2001. Fringes were measured successfully on both head-stacks. The performance of the observing system is presently undergoing further improvement, and the MKV system will be available from mid 2004.

The Sheshan station is also equipped with a Canadian S2 VLBI recording system, used for APT, VSOP, and other VLBI observations. In addition, hydrogen masers were recently made by SHAO.

Leading Professor: Xiaoyu Hong

Group Members:
Faculty:  Tao An(associate professor), Qingyuan Fan(professor),  Wei Gou, Xiaoyu Hong(professor), Bin Li(engineer),Rongbin Zhao(assistant engineer), Quanbao Ling(engineer),  Jinqing Wang(engineer), Lingling Wang(engineer), Weihua Wang(associate professor),  Bo Xia(assistant engineer), Zhuhe Xue(professor),  Hong Yu(associate professor),  Linfeng Yu

Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, All Rights Reserved
80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030, China
Tel: +86-21-64386191 Email:shao@shao.ac.cn

SOURCE: Shanghai Astronomical Observatory


Observatory and Church
Observatory and Church by gumbase


Observatory on She Shan by Irish Shagua

JasonHang, on February 25, 2007, said:

Chinese Academy of Science,SHANGHAI astronomical observatory, SHESHAN workstation. It is founded by French Holy Joe in 1900. The observatory is equiped by a birefringent telescope which has a diameter of 40cm. 100 years ago. SHESHAN is the largest observatory in Far-east. Nowadays, because of its near urban areas location, SHESHAN is more used in education than in science observation.

She Shan Basilica

Christianity in China portal

The She Shan Basilica (officially: Basilica of Our Lady of She Shan, simplified Chinese: 佘山进教之佑圣母大殿; pinyin: Shéshān jìnjiào zhī yòu shèngmǔ dàdiàn) is a Catholic church in Shanghai, China. The name comes from its location on the western peak of She Shan Hill, located in Songjiang District, to the west of Shanghai's metropolitan area. It is the largest Christian church building in East Asia and was at one time the destination of pilgrims from across Asia.

Sketch of Sheshan Cathedral

The stairs, the gate, all leading up to the front of She Shan Basilica by Christopher


The official name of the church is the Church of the Holy Mother in China. The first church on She Shan hill was built in 1863. During the Taiping Rebellion, Jesuit missionaries bought a plot of land on the southern slopes of the hill. A derelict Buddhist monastery had stood on the site. The remaining buildings were demolished, and a small building was constructed as living quarters for missionaries, and a small chapel. At the peak of the hill (where the Maitreya hall had stood), a small pavilion was built in which was placed a statue of the Madonna.

In June 1870, unrest in Tianjin led to the burning of churches there. The Shanghai Jesuits prayed at the statue of the Madonna and pledged to build a church to her honour in return for her protection. Subsequently, construction of the church began. Wood was shipped in from Shanghai, and stone bought from Fujian. All material had to be ported to the peak by hand. The church was completed two years later. This first church was in the form of a cross, and incorporated features of both Chinese and Western architectural features. A veranda was placed outside the door, with ten columns. Eight stone lions were placed before the church. In 1894, several ancillary buildings were added. These included a chapel half-way down the hill, a shrine to the Sacred Heart, the Virgin Mary, and St Joseph. Fourteen Stations of the Cross were constructed along the path to the Church.

In 1925, the existing Church was found to be inadequate, and it lagged far behind other churches in Shanghai in terms of size and ornamentation. The church was demolished and rebuilt. Because the Portuguese priest and architect (叶肇昌) was very stringent about the quality of construction, the whole project took ten years to finish, and the church was completed in 1935.

In 1942, Pope Pius XII ordained the She Shan Cathedral a minor Basilica. In 1946, the Holy See crowned the statue of Our Lady of Zose (Zose being the Shanghainese pronunciation of She Shan) at the apex of the tower.

After the Communist takeover in 1949, She Shan Cathedral was heavily damaged during the Cultural Revolution. The stained glass windows of the church, carvings along the Via Dolorosa, the statue atop the bell tower, and various other works of iconography were destroyed.

In the 1950s, Ignatius Kung Pin-Mei the Roman Catholic bishop of Shanghai was arrested and imprisoned for over 30 years and the Chinese government put the basilica under the control of the Chinese Patriotic Catholic Association and Chinese bishops not recognized by the Vatican, and condemned by the papal encyclical Ad Apostolorum Principis.

After the Cultural Revolution ended, the damage was gradually repaired. The statue was initially replaced with a simple iron cross, and a replacement statue was installed in 2000.

On May 24, 2008 Pope Benedict XVI announced that he had composed a special prayer for Our Lady of Sheshan.

Close up to the Cathedral by Whhalbert

The church occupies an area of 1 hectare and is about 70 feet (20 m) tall. It is a rectangular Latin cross in shape, and in classical Basilica form. Entrances are placed in the north, west, and south. The main door is in the south-west. The nave is 55.81 m long, 24.68 m wide. The ceiling is 16.46 high, and the church can seat 3000. The altar is placed at the eastern end, and is built of marble with gold trim and in-laid jade. The exterior is mainly granite, and part of the roof is covered in Chinese-style color-glazed tiles.

The bell tower stands on the south-east corner. It is 38 m tall. At the top of its bell tower stands a 4.8m bronze Madonna and Child statue ("Our Lady of Zose", Zose being the Shanghainese pronunciation of "She Shan").

Other features

The 14 Stations of the Cross are situated at the end of each zig-zag path up the steep hill leading to the church. At the mid level in an open square where there are two shrines, one in devotion to the Sacred Heart and the other to the Virgin Mary.

Nearby is the She Shan Station of the Shanghai Astronomical Observatory. This was originally built by the Jesuits.

In 1874, Pope Pius IX declared that pilgrims who went to She Shan in May (traditionally a Marian month) would receive a Plenary Indulgence. As a result, pilgrims from all over China began to congregate at She Shan in May, a practice that continues to this day.

Every May, the church becomes the destination for pilgrims who travel far and wide to make their annual pilgrimage at She Shan, praying the Way of the Cross, the Rosary and attending Mass at this holy site. Traditionally, many of the Catholics in the area were fishermen, who would make the pilgrimage by boat. This tradition continues among local Catholics, with the result that the creeks around She Shan are often crowded with boats in May.

Currently, She Shan is the only active pilgrimage site for Roman Catholics in China.

See also

  1. Papal encyclical Ad Apostolorum Principis [1]
  2. Catholic News http://www.cwnews.com/news/viewstory.cfm?recnum=58489
External links
Sheshan Cathedral - 从佘山天文台看佘山教堂 by youxzr
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