IRIS
Imaging Riometer for Ionospheric Studies
Syowa Station
Japanese, Antarctica
-69 0' 14.79", +39 34' 55.90"
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JARE - Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition

A number of governmental agencies cooperatively conduct Japanese Antarctic research under the name of the Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE). All decisions and approval of proposals for research activities rest with the Headquarters of JARE under the chairmanship of the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. The Secretariat of the JARE Headquarters belongs to the Science and International Affairs Bureau, Monbukagakusho.

The task of NIPR is to operate JARE both for scientific programs and logistics, except the transportation of personnel and materials by the icebreaker Shirase from Japan to Antarctica. Scientific programs at Syowa Station cover the following fields : upper atmosphere physics, meteorology, seismology, gravimetry, geodesy and cartog-raphy, oceanography, glaciology, geology, geography, marine and terrestrial biology, and medical research. Programs offered on board the Shirase include the following subjects : ionosphere, meteorology, geomagnetism, gravimetry, and physical, chemical and biological oceanography.

All Japanese scientific stations in Antarctica belong to NIPR. Syowa Station, the mother station of JARE, was established in January 1957, at 6900'S and 3935'E on East Ongul Island, Lutzow-Holm Bay, East Antarctica. The total floor area of the buildings has increased from 184m2 (3 buildings) in 1957 to 5,930.5m2 (48 buildings) and other outdoor facilities in 2001.

Mizuho Station was established in July 1970 along the geomagnetic meridian passing through Syowa Station. It is located on the inland ice sheet at 7042'S and 4420'E (2,230m above sea level), about 270km southeast of Syowa. After intermittent occupation, a few members maintained year-round operation from 1976 to 1986, making observations on meteorology, glaciology, and upper atmosphere physics.
It has been closed since 1987 and is occasionally visited by some parties for meteorological and glaciological observations.

Asuka Station was established in December 1984 on the ice sheet north of the Sor-Rondane Mountains, at 7132'S and 2408'E (930m above sea level). Most of the station facilities of about 450m2 in total floor area have become buried under snow. The principal role of the station is to support field work in geology, geomorphology, meteorite searches, glaciology and biology in the Sor-Rondane Mountains. However, year-round observations including meteorology, glaciology, solid earth geophysics, and upper atmosphere physics were conducted between 1987 to 1991. Since 1991 the station activities have been suspended. Dome Fuji Station equipped with 8 buildings, 407m2 in total, was established in 1995 at 7719'01"S and 3942'12"E (3,810m above sea level) for the deep drilling program and atmospheric observations.
In recent years, environmental protection of Antarctica and its unique ecosystems has become increasingly important in planning and conducting Antarctic research. In accordance with the protocol on environmental protection in the Antarctic Treaty, appropriate procedures for environmental protection are followed in the Japanese Antarctic Research Expeditions.

A new program for monitoring changes in global and regional environments and ecosystems was started at Syowa Station and its coastal and inland vicinity in 1997. The monitoring programs include major parameters of atmospheric glaciological, solid geophysical and biological changes, such as atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, sea level, population of penguins etc. Pollutants in sea water, ice or snow and in animals, such as heavy metals and organic chlorinated compounds derived from global and regional sources, are occasionally measured. The monitoring of global environmental change is an essential part of basic scientific programs as described in the previous chapter.

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Long periodic antenna array of HF radar at Syowa Station.
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LA view of Syowa Station taken from a helicopter.
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Overview of Syowa Station in February 2000 and the antenna radome.
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Photo: J. Lee Steere
Antenna Array is in top right corner and detailed below top center
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Photo: J. Lee Steere
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Multipurpose satellite data receiving system at Syowa Station.
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Multipurpose satellite data receiving system at Syowa Station.
Riometer details for Syowa, Antarctica
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Credit: Steve Marple
Riometer beam projection for Syowa.
Note that any beams which have multiple lobes stronger than -3dB are not shown.
Syowa Station Live Web Cam
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Syowa Station Live Web Cam
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Syowa Station Live Web Cam
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