US Nuclear Sites in Europe


U.S. Nuclear Weapons on the territories of 6 NATO States

Arsenal Size:

  • 150-240 U.S. non-strategic gravity B-61 warheads.
  • Six U.S. nuclear weapon facilities in five NATO countries: Belgium (10-20), Germany (10-20), Italy (70-90), Netherlands (10-20), and Turkey (50-90).
  • Several sources indicate that estimated 130 U.S. nuclear weapons at the Ramstein Air Base in Germany appear to have been removed in July 2007.
  • Several sources indicated in June 2008 that the United States had withdrawn nuclear weapons from the RAF Lankenheath air base where it is generally believed that 110 U.S. nuclear weapons were deployed. 
Weapons System:
  • Non-strategic gravity bombs (B61-3, B61-4, and B61-10)
  • Delivery system: U.S. F-15 E, F16C/D, Belgian, Dutch, and Turkish F-16s, and German and Italian PA-200 Tornado.
Destructive Force:
  • B-61-3: maximum yield of 170 Kt. 
  • B-61-4: 45 Kt. 
  • B-61-10: 80 Kt. 
Warheads Dismantled:
  • In 1971, U.S. nuclear warheads in Europe peaked at approximately 7,300. Since then, more than 7,000 warheads have been removed.
Nuclear Weapons Related Policies:
  • 1999 NATO Strategic Concept confirms commitment to deploying nuclear weapons in Europe to maintain the "minimum level sufficient to preserve peace and stability." 
  • 2005 NATO reaffirmed continued deployment of U.S. nuclear weapons in Europe.
  • At the most recent Nuclear Planning Group meeting on June 15, 2007, NATO reaffirmed the importance of deploying U.S. nuclear weapons in Europe.
Treaty Commitments:
  • The six NATO countries which share U.S. nuclear weapons are all parties to the NPT, PTBT, and CTBT.
Sources: This material is produced independently for NTI by the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies at the Monterey Institute of International Studies and does not necessarily reflect the opinions of and has not been independently verified by NTI or its directors, officers, employees, agents. Copyright 2007 by MIIS.


Volkel, Uden, Netherlands
Google Hides Military Base
+51 39' 27.92", +5 42' 8.09"
Near Odiliapeel, Noord-Brabant (Netherlands)

The area above has been blocked out by Google Earth. It is the site of one of the Nuclear Weapon repositories that the US maintains in Europe. Below is a zoomed out version of the area that still shows the Airfield. We can expect to see more of this covering up in the next few years.

Open House Air Power 2007 - Volkel
Credit: By SanderBongers
Paratroopers at Volkel Field
Credit: By juf
Credit: By juf
Credit: By juf
Credit: by Sanne Buurma
Volkel Air Base, Netherlands
Credit: Khx023
F-16 June 16 2006

Volkel Air Base (Dutch: Vliegbasis Volkel) is a military airfield used by the Royal Netherlands Air Force (RNLAF) and is located near the town of Uden in the Netherlands. It is home to three Fokker F-16 Fighting Falcon squadrons, 311, 312 and 313. It also serves as a maintenance and logistical base for the RNLAF and houses the 703rd Munition Support Squadron, part of the 52d Fighter Wing from the United States Air Force.

Volkel Air Base is one of several military airfields in the Netherlands and one of the three major operational bases of the RNLAF, the other two being Leeuwarden Air Base and Gilze-Rijen Air Base. Together with these, it also hosts the public viewing days of the RNLAF, held annually at one of these three airfields, having both an airshow and static display of various military and civilian aircraft.

The airport has two parallel runways, both in the 06/24 direction and both being just over 3,000 meters (or just over 9,900 feet) long. 06L/24R is 45 meters wide and capable of handling larger aircraft. 06R/24L is narrower at only 23 meters wide.

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