Planet X - Nemesis
A Substellar Solar Companion in the Oort Cloud?

John J. Matese
Emeritus Professor of Physics
University of  Louisiana at Lafayette

The following figure illustrates the scatter on the celestial sphere of outer Oort cloud comet aphelia directions  in galactic coordinates. The pronounced deficiencies at the galactic equator and at the galactic poles are characteristic of the galactic interaction which is minimal at these locations. But we also note an anomalous concentration of points along a "great circle" which passes near the galactic poles. In an article in the journal Icarus, we have suggested that there is statistically significant evidence that this concentration, amounting to an excess of approximately 25%, could be caused by a companion to the Sun which aids the galactic tide in making Oort cloud comets observable. The companion is estimated to have a mass of 3-5 MJupiter and a mean distance at the interaction site of 25000 AU. If there is no substantive inner Oort cloud, a closer orbit is possible. Its location along the great circle is not presently predictable and that will present a problem for detection, but it is potentially observable in the radio using the VLA and should also be observable in the infrared at 5 microns using the next generation of space telescopes such as Spitzer and SOFIA. An object with these properties would be readily seen by WISE (Ned Wright's Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer), recently approved for a 2008 launch in NASA's Medium-class Explorer program of lower cost, highly focused, rapid-development scientific spacecraft. The estimated mass of the companion puts it below the nominal brown dwarf limit (~ 13 MJupiter ) where deuterium fusion can occur and would make it a planet in that context. However its location in the outer Oort cloud means that it is not possible that it formed in the protosolar planetary disk. The object could have been ejected from another stellar system and captured by the Sun in their complex star forming region.

At the Berlin meeting of "Asteroids, Comets, Meteors 2002" (co-authored by Jack J. Lissauer, link to paper below) we have presented supportive evidence of the solar companion conjecture. Since the Icarus paper was published twenty seven new outer Oort cloud comets have been discovered. The previously noted overpopulated band maintains an excess. This strengthens the statistical evidence for correlated orbital elements as predicted by the analysis. The figure below includes the best fit perturber orbit and can be compared to the corresponding figure in the 1999 Icarus paper which did not include the new data. It is argued that the correlated data found is highly unlikely to be the result of "bad data" - which typically reduces real correlations. Nor is it likely to be spuriously produced by some unspecified "observational selection effect" - a situation where limitations on our ability to observe comets can spuriously affect the distributions of the observed data. To date, the only documented observational selection effect applicable to this data is the well-known one that comets with large perihelion distances are less likely to be sufficiently well observed so that their energies (i. e. semimajor axes) are accurately known. We discuss in these papers why this selection effect will tend to spuriously reduce the predicted correlations rather than enhance them. A recent paper ("Biases in Cometary Catalogues and Planet X", J. Horner and N. W. Evans, MNRAS 335 (3) 641, (2002)) has concluded that a bound Jovian mass companion is a "possible, perhaps even likely, explanation of the unusual pattern".



Approximately 25% of the 82 new class I Oort cloud comets have ananomalous distribution of orbital elements that can best be understood if there exists a bound perturber in the outer Oort cloud. Statistically signifcant correlated anomalies include aphelia directions, energies, perihelion distances and signatures of the angular
momentum change due to the Galaxy. The perturber, acting in concert with the galactic tide, causes these comets to enter the loss cylinder - an interval of Oort cloud comet perihelion distances in the planetary region which is emptied by interactions with Saturn and Jupiter. More concisely, the impulse serves to smear the loss cylinder boundary inward along the track of the perturber. Thus it is easier for the galactic tide to make these comets
observable. A smaller number of comets are directly injected by the impulsive mechanism. We estimate that the perturber-comet interactions take place at a mean distance of  25000AU. The putative brown dwarf would have a mass of 3  2MJupiter and an orbit whosenormal direction is within 5 of the galactic midplane. This object would not have been detected in the IRAS database, but will be detectable in the next generation of planet/brown dwarf searches, including SIRTF. It is also possible that its radio emissions would make it distinguishable in sensitive radio telescopes such as the VLA

Icarus 141, 353 (1999) reprint on a putative companion to the Sun

Zecharia Sitchin on the Return of Nibiru

“Nibiru settled into a clockwise orbit (equal to 3,600 orbits of Earth around the Sun). Nibiru stabilized into a clockwise orbit, equal to 3,600 orbits of Earth around the Sun until 10, 900 B.C.E., when Nibiru arrived earlier, due to increasing drift from Solaris of Uranus. Uranus' gravity sped Nibiru's orbit. As a result of this
close encounter between Nibiru and Uranus, one of Nibiru's moons, Miranda, was captured by and became a moon of Uranus as Nibiru and Uranus pulled at each other. From 10,000B.C.E. on, Nibiru's revolution sped to 3.450 Earth years; which makes Nibiru's next return 2900A.D. rather than 2012 as predicated on the earlier 3600- year orbit”

Sitchin, Z., 2007, The End of Days, pages 315 - 317

2900 AD  not 2012

In Sitchin's own words... that is 892 years away...

Andy Lloyd on Nibiru

12/20/02 3:10:43 PM Pacific Standard Time

This is Andy Lloyds reply to recent Nibiru positions...
He's replying to my reponse...

Re: More Signs Solar System Has Tenth Planet Personally I have a "gut" feeling (and I trust them) that Nibiru is at about 545 AU (maybe somewhat farther) and that it's outside of the visible light spectrum thus the problem "seeing" it with conventional telescopes, however there's SOOO much sky out there that looking for it is like looking for a needle in the haystack...

NASA seems intent on feeding us photos from areas that are light years away...
Kinda makes one wonder.

Andy Lloyd
The Theorist
Posts: 207
(12/19/02 4:06:54 pm)

Re: More Signs Solar System Has Tenth Planet  NASA have been quite unequivocal about the possibility of a Planet X. They deny it's even possible. They base this on a (perceived) lack of evidence in the solar system, prefering to dismiss orbital anomalies among the other planets as lying within margins of error etc. I think their reluctance to embrace the possibility of another planet in the solar system is also historical, based upon accepted planet-forming models. In other words, because the potential for a Planet beyond Pluto does not fall within the parameters of understood planet-building models, there can't be one out there.

Of course, this is not really acceptable as an argument, because it assumes that the current theories, having been based upon scant data of known planets, are necessarily correct. They needn't be. And now we are gaining better knowledge about extra-solar planets, and Kuiper Belt Objects, the possibilities are beginning to open up. Even so, it's a brave astronomer who starts to talk about Planet X, and the fact that the New Scientist article is written by established popular science writers, and quotes esteemed academics, is a major development. The whole subject is becoming acceptable to discuss.

Yet NASA will still be hard to budge. Their plans to visit Pluto with a probe, and from there explore parts of the vast Kuiper Belt, have been put on ice several times, mostly because of that funding black hole known as the ISS. Will NASA relent and accept the importance of exploring the outer reaches of the solar system?

You raise an interesting point about detectability. The party line is that a planet sized object at 50AU would almost certainly have been detected by the sky searches performed already. Yet here we have scientists trying to explain a major irregularity in the Kuiper Belt at this distance with an Earth-sized planet. The searches haven't found it, yet the data suggests it should be there. So the Planet has been at 50 AU, to sweep out the Kuiper Belt at that point, but presumably lies further away now. Possibly at 545AU? Who knows?

Implying an irregular, elliptical orbit...Sounds familiar?


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