From: Guy Cramer [mailto:gcramer@hyperstealth.com]
Sent: Monday, August 20, 2007 3:47 PM
To: John Lear

I've spoken with Dr. Larry Taylor, director of UTís Planetary Geosciences Institute in Knoxville, Gerald Kulcinski, Director of the Fusion Technology Institute (FTI) at the University of Wisconsin at Madison and Harrison Schmitt, Chairman Of Interlune-Intermars Initiative, Inc. and Apollo 17 Astronaut regarding Helium 3 data, although we never got as far as discussing an extraction process.

Guy Cramer, President/CEO
HyperStealth Biotechnology Corp.


Space Resources Roundtable (SRR)
#6 Explores Materials Handling, Mining Claims, and Planetary Operations. 

Apollo 17 Moonwalker Harrison Schmitt leads off today's session of the 6th SRR that is meeting thru Wednesday of this week at the Colorado School of Mines in Golden. In his paper 'Solar Wind Helium Concentrations in Undisturbed Lunar Regolith,' Schmitt argues "considerations of the geology of helium in the lunar regolith strongly indicate that agitation of regolith samples before laboratory analysis has caused the loss of solar wind volatiles." Other papers presented this morning will include 'Granular Flow and In-Situ Resource Utilization,' 'Intelligent Excavation for the Moon' and 'Lunar and Martian Fiberglass as a Versatile Family of ISRU Value-Added Products.' In the afternoon, W.N. White presents 'Space Law Update: Real Property Rights and Resource Appropriation,' wherein he discusses the case 'Nemitz vs. the United States.' Gary Rodriguez follows with 'Telepossession Transforms Asteroids into Resources,' and also may present 'Power Lander for Support of Long-Term Lunar Presence' and 'Using Spent Fuel Tanks as Habitats.' A late afternoon discussion on 'ISRU Demonstration Experiments and Flights' will be led by Jeff Taylor.

In 1972, Harrison H. "Jack" Schmitt became the twelfth man to walk on the moon when he served as the lunar module pilot for Apollo 17, the final manned Apollo lunar mission. Dr. Schmitt, the only geologist to ever visit the moon, stayed on the moon's surface for a record 75 hours as he and another astronaut conducted three separate surface excursions and collected some 243 pounds of rock and soil samples. He had earned his doctorate in geology from Harvard University in 1964 and was selected by NASA in 1965 as part of its scientist-astronaut program, where he oversaw lunar science training for the Apollo crews. After leaving NASA in 1975, Dr. Schmitt represented New Mexico in the U. S. Senate from 1977 to 1983. More recently, Dr. Schmitt has been an adjunct faculty member in the department of engineering physics at the University of Wisconsin and has worked as a consultant and freelance writer and speaker on matters related to space, geology, technology, business, and public policy. The lunch, which is co-sponsored by the Honors College and the Wells Scholars Program, will give participants an opportunity to talk with Dr. Schmitt about his own experiences as well as the future of the U.S. space program and space exploration, including the return to the moon proposed by President Bush.

23-Feb, 15, F, HH Schmitt, Potential Resources of Mars vs the Moon. 26-Feb, 16, M, HH Schmitt, Evolution and Potential Resources of the Asteroids/Comets ...

NEEP602 Space Resources-Univ. of Wisconsin

Lectures by H H Schmitt:
These papers have left out the other works in the program by other authors. They will be included under their own page...

More Papers:
FTI Publications for Author: Schmitt, H.H.
  1. UWFDM-730   The Moon: An Abundant Source of Clean and Safe Fusion Fuel for the 21st Century; G.L. Kulcinski and H.H. Schmitt, August 1987 [Presented at the 11th International Scientific Forum on Fueling the 21st Century, 29 Sept.-6 October 1987, Moscow, USSR.]. (38 pages, 6.2 MB)
  2. UWFDM-817   Mining Helium-3 from the Moon - A Solution to the Earth's Energy Needs in the 21st Century; G.L. Kulcinski, H.H. Schmitt, E.N. Cameron, I.N. Sviatoslavsky, November 1989 [presented at the 1990 SME Annual Meeting, 26 February - 1 March 1990, Salt Lake City UT]. (13 pages, 2.1 MB)
  3. UWFDM-826   Fusion Power from Lunar Resources; G.L. Kulcinski and H.H. Schmitt, October 1990 (revised September 1991)  [presented at the 41st Congress of the International Astronautical Federation, Dresden, Germany, 6-12 October 1990. To be published in Fusion Technology]. (25 pages, 625 kB)
  4. UWFDM-1000   Interlune-Intermars Business Intiative: Returning to Deep Space; H.H. Schmitt, April 1997 [published in Journal of Aerospace Engineering, April 1997, pp. 60-67]. (10 pages, 1.4 MB)
  5. UWFDM-1113   Origin and Evolution of the Moon: Apollo 2000 Model; H.H. Schmitt, September 1999 [Presented at New Views of the Moon II, Flagstaff AZ, 22-24 September 1999]. (8 pages, 133 kB)
  6. UWFDM-1120   Solar-Wind Hydrogen at the Lunar Poles; H.H. Schmitt, G.L. Kulcinski, J.F. Santarius, J. Ding, M.J. Malecki, M.J. Zalewski, February 2000 [Presented at SPACE 2000, The Seventh International Conference and Exposition on Engineering, Construction, Operations, and Business in Space, Albuquerque NM, 27 February - 2 March 2000; published in the Proceedings, pp. 653-660]. (11 pages, 204 kB)
  7. UWFDM-1121   Source and Implications of Large Lunar Basin-Forming Objects; H.H. Schmitt, March 2000 [Presented at the 31st Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston TX, 13-17 March 2000]. (4 pages, 83 kB)
  8. UWFDM-1122   Contrary Views of the Origin and Thermal Evolution of the Moon; H.H. Schmitt, March 2000 [Presented at the 31st Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston TX, 13-17 March 2000]. (21 pages, 2.4 MB)
  9. UWFDM-1131   Nuclear Power Without Radioactive Waste - The Promise of Lunar Helium-3; G.L. Kulcinski and H.H. Schmitt, July 2000 [presented at the Second Annual Lunar Development Conference, ``Return to the Moon II'', 20-21 July 2000, Las Vegas NV]. (9 pages, 228 kB)
  10. UWFDM-1187   Lunar Cataclysm? Depends On What ``Cataclysm'' Means; Harrison H. Schmitt, March 2001 [Paper \#1133, 32nd Lunar and Planetary Conference, 12-16 March 2001, Houston TX]. (4 pages, 537 kB)
  11. UWFDM-1189   A Lunar Field Geologist's Perspective 30 Years Later: Shocking Revelations About the Moon, Mars and Earth; Harrison H. Schmitt, October 2002 [2002 G.K. Gilbert Lecture, Annual Meeting and Exposition of the Geological Society of America, Planetary Geology Division, 27-30 October 2002, Denver CO]. (11 pages, 1.2 MB)
  12. UWFDM-1190   Return to the Moon; Harrison H. Schmitt, December 2002 [Accepted essay for a forthcoming book, ``Our Worlds 2,'' edited by Alan Stern]. (10 pages, 907 kB)
  13. UWFDM-1191   Business Approach To Lunar Base Activation; Harrison H. Schmitt, December 2002 [accepted by the Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF-2003), 2-5 February 2003, Albuquerque NM]. (8 pages, 750 kB)
  14. UWFDM-1192   Business Context of Space Tourism; Harrison H. Schmitt, December 2002 [accepted by the Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF-2003), 2-5 February 2003, Albuquerque NM]. (6 pages, 594 kB)
  15. UWFDM-1259   Large Energy Development Projects: Lessons Learned from Space and Politics; H.H. Schmitt, September 2004 [Proceedings 16th ANS Topical Meeting on Fusion Energy, Fusion Science and Technology 47 (3), April 2005, pp. 279-290]. (15 pages, 827 kB)
  16. WCSAR-TR-AR3-8901-1   Legal Regimes for the Mining of Helium-3 from the Moon; R.B. Bilder, E.N. Cameron, G.L. Kulcinski, H.H. Schmitt, February 1989 (revised July 1989). (117 pages, 8.3 MB)
  17. WCSAR-TR-AR3-9012-1   Net Environmental Aspects of Helium-3 Mining - Phase I: Effect on the Moon; E.N. Cameron, W.D. Carrier III, G.L. Kulcinski, H.H. Schmitt, October 1989 (revised December 1990). (88 pages, 9.2 MB)
  18. WCSAR-TR-AR3-9107-2   Fusion Power from Lunar Resources; G.L. Kulcinski, H.H. Schmitt, October 1991 [Published in Fusion Technology, Special Issue on DHe3 Fusion, Vol. 21 (4) 2221-2229]. (11 pages, 1.6 MB)
  19. WCSAR-TR-AR3-9201-5   Environmental Aspects of Lunar Helium-3 Mining; G.L. Kulcinski, E.N. Cameron, W.D. Carrier III, H.H. Schmitt, January 1992 [prepared for Space 92, The Third International Conference on Engineering, Construction, and Operations in Space, 31 May-4 June 1992, Denver CO]. (13 pages, 208 kB)
  20. WCSAR-TR-AR3-9203-1   Spiral Mining for Lunar Volatiles; H.H. Schmitt, G.L. Kulcinski, I.N. Sviatoslavsky, W.D. Carrier III, March 1992 [prepared for Space 92, The Third International Conference on Engineering, Construction, and Operations in Space, 31 May-4 June 1992, Denver CO]. (11 pages, 959 kB)
  21. WCSAR-TR-AR3-9203-2   INTERLUNE Concept for Helium-3 Lunar Development; H.H. Schmitt, March 1992 [prepared for Space 92, The Third International Conference on Engineering, Construction, and Operations in Space, 31 May-4 June 1992, Denver CO]. (13 pages, 1.1 MB)
  22. WCSAR-TR-AR3-9304-2   Helium-3: The Space Connection; H.H. Schmitt and G.L. Kulcinski, April 1993 [presented at the 9th National Space Symposium, Colorado Springs CO, 13-16 April 1993]. (31 pages, 1.4 MB)
  23. Early Lunar Impact Events: Terrestrial and Solar System Implication; H.H. Schmitt, October 1999 [Presented at the Geological Society of America 1999 Annual Meeting and Exposition, Denver CO, 23-28 October 1999]. (10 pages, 93 kB)
  24. Perspectives on Helium-3 Fusion: Year 2000; H.H. Schmitt, October 1999 [Presented at the Space Resources Utilization Roundtable, Colorado School of Mines, Golden CO, 27-29 October 1999]. (9 pages, 122 kB)
  25. Solar-Wind Hydrogen at the Lunar Poles; H.H. Schmitt, G.L. Kulcinski, J.F. Santarius, J. Ding, M.J. Malecki, M.J. Zalewski, March 2000 [Presented at SPACE 2000, The Seventh International Conference and Exposition on Engineering, Construction, Operations, and Business in Space, Albuquerque NM, 27 February - 2 March 2000]. (15 pages, 169 kB)
  26. Current Directions for the University of Wisconsin IEC Research Program; G. Kulcinski, J. Santarius, R. Ashley, H. Schmitt, D. Boris, B. Cipiti, G. Piefer, R. Radel, S. Krupakar Murali, K. Tomiyasu, A. Wehmeyer, J. Weidner, T. Uchytil, October 2003 [presented at the 6th U.S.-Japan IEC Workshop, 20-21 October 2003, Tokyo, Japan]. (20 pages, 621 kB)
  27. Energy, Politics and Space; H.H. Schmitt, September 2004 [presented at the 16th ANS Topical Meeting on Fusion Energy, 14-16 September 2004, Madison WI]. (16 pages, 165 kB)
FTI home
Fusion Technology Institute updated October 3, 2010
© 2010 Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System
Mining Connection #004

USGS 1967
After some intensive searching I have found the full scale original USGS Lunar topographical and mining maps of the Moon. The one specific to Copernicus crater is below {a small clip reduced in size}. Click on the image below to take you to the source files. Those of you with dial up be aware that the full scale images are over 100 megs in size!

Geologic Atlas of the Moon Listing a pdf file.
Geologic Atlas of the Moon Actual Full Scale Maps

What is most significant about these maps is the size and detail... and the fact that they were created in 1967, two years before we landed on the moon. The other interesting thing to note is the names of the creators of the map...

Lecture #42 Show me your ROI!
Title: Interlune Intermars Initiative


Delaware Corporation incorporated in 1997
Privately Financed
Vision Statement: 

Mission Statements:
1. Develop commercial enterprises related to resources from space that provide a competive return to investors. 
2.Protect the Earth's environment and increase the well-being of its inhabitants by using energy from space, particularly lunar 3He, as a major alternative to fossil and fission fuels. 
3. Develop resources from space that will support future near-Earth and deep space activities and human settlement. 
4. Establish the human species in diverse, self-sufficient enclaves on the Moon and Mars. 
5. Develop reliable and robust capabilities to launch payloads from Earth to deep space at a cost of $1000/kg or less (1997 dollars). 
6. Endow a world-class Space Biomedical Sciences Institute within the mainstream of biomedical research. 
7. Conduct intramural and extramural research related to resources from space that will provide cost effective support for lunar and martian settlements. 
8.Develop the technical and organizational capability to deflect asteroids and comets that pose significant threats to human settlements in the solar system. 
9. Cooperate with nations and world organizations to guarantee that both the space treaty enviroment and national regulatory and economic structures encourage all peaceful space enterprises. 
10. Endow a "Solar System Fleet Academy" for training of cadres of space specialists, generalists, and skilled workers. 
11.Endow an International Energy and Environment Foundation with the funds necessary to establish a worldwide technical and economic base for the use of energy from space.
Logic for considering a business initiative related to lunar resources;
  • Lunar resources have a future role in the economy of the Earth-Moon-Mars sector of the Solar System.
    • Resources for use on Earth 
    • Resources for use in Earth orbit 
    • Resources for use in space transportation 
    • Resources for use by lunar and Martian settlers 
    • Resources for protection from asteroidal and cometary collisions 
  • The Moon is near-by and reasonably accessible
  • The Apollo Program and subsequent space activities have created a base of knowledge for planning
    • A lunar resource base of potential economic value has been identified. 
    • This resource base has been partially characterizedy by the Apollo investigations, the lunar sample analysis program, on-going remote sensing and subsequent laboratory analysis. 
    • Significant quantities and varieties of lunar samples exist for further investigations related to resource and engineering questions. 
    • Technical fesibility of going to and living on the Moon has been demonstrated by Apollo, Skylab, Mir,and soon, the International Space Station. 
    • The necessary technological concepts for transportation to the Moon have been well developed and tested. 
Logic for considering a business initiative related to 3He fusion
  • An alternative to fossil fuels for the generation of electrical power will be required early in the 21st Century (Lectures # 1, 3, and 40).
    • Global population will double to over 10 billion by 2050 
    • 15 BOE/capita required to stay even with current global comsumption 
    • 60 BOE/capita required globally to reach current US consumption and quality of life 
    • ?? BOE/capita require to mitigate the long term effects of global climate change whether warming or cooling (climate change is the geological rule, not an environmental exception) 
    • Consequences of business-as-usual will be "huge"
      • Cartel control, defense requirements, environmental costs 
    • Fossil hydrocarbons (fuels) will become incresingly valuable as natural chemicals
  • 3He fusion is a scientifically sound concept and steadily advancing technologically (Lectures #27 and 28)
  • 3He fusion systems are commercially feasible provided fuel prices are competitive and R&D financing available (Lectures 28 and 34)
    • At $21/barrel for oil, energy equivalent value is about $3 billion/tonne
    • As the US uses the energy equivalent of 30 tonnes of 3He/year to produce electricity, the no growth market for the US alone is about $90 billion/year.
      • For perspective, the Apollo Program cost about $64 billion in today's dollars.
    • The US growth market is 2050, and after nearly total power infrastructure replacement, would be about $200 billion.
    • These economic figures suggest that a lunar minig operation may be commercially viable if start-up costs can be financed, that is, held to a few billion dollars/year for about 10 years with returns on investment begining within 3-5 years of initial investment. 
  • 3He fusion power is politically and environmentally sound (Lectures # 1 and 28)
    • No radioactive fuel
    • Little or no nuclear waste
    • Reduction of the environmental impace of power generation
    • High conversion efficiences
    • No external effluents
    • Potential for a new domestic industrial base
    • Important spin-off technologies
    • Potential for less expensive electrical power
    • Concurrent development of other space resources
    • Concurrent development of the capability to deflect Earth-crossing
    • Very limited and transitory environmental impact on the Moon's surface and atmosphere
  • Lunar 3He resources can be extracted at commercially viable costs (Lectures #19 and 20) 
  • Permanently occupied settlements on the moon are feasible (Lectures 19, 21, and 24) 

Potential Business Implementation Schedule for the INTERLUNE INTERMARS INTITIATIVE, INC.
  • This schedule is only one of many such possible schedules that might be devised for 3He or other space resource development. 
  • To the extent currently possible, this schedule allows for many of the regulatory, technical, and financial uncertainties that always accompany projects of this magnetude.
  • Timelines:

Government 3He or lunar or space-based solar energy initiative

  • Funding probably not possible due to entitlement demands and other budgetary considerations.
  • International governmental cooperation prohibitively complex under normal mechanisms.
  • History shows that costs will increase and management efficiency will decrease relative to plans as taxpayer pressure to control costs is only indirect and diluted through the broader electorial process.
  • Limited in total potential as ultimately energy is required for growth and improvement of quality of life.
  • Not realizable internationally due to growth demands
Coal/oil fired plants (Lectures #3 and 40)
  • Long term value as chemicals
  • Long term environmental issues
  • Long term cost of fuel
Natural gas or gasified coal plants (Lectures #3 and 40)
  • Long term value as chemicals
  • Long term environmental issues
  • Long term cost of fuel
  • Long term supply limited
Tritium and deuterium based fusion concepts suffer from two problems
(Lectures #27 and 28):
  • Very large magnets and very complex reactor systems are required to contain and control the fusion plasmas
    • This will make power plants very costly
  • Neutrons are the primary reaction product
    • To extract energy these neutrons must be adsorbed in the reactor walls, giving up heat
      • This heat is extracted at efficiencies of 35-40%
      • The adsorbed neutrons produce radioisotopes in the reactor walls
      • This requires the walls to be replaced every few years and handled as high level radioactive waste
      • This also requires fail safe cooling systems to avoid meltdowns in the case of a loss of primary cooling
      • Plant decommissioning will be complex and expensive
  • These problems and their consequences do not exist with 3He fusion (Lectures #27 and 28)
    • Relatively simple plant designs should be possible if IEC technology matures
    • Protons are the primary reaction product
    • Electricity can be produced by direct conversion at efficiencies as high as 70%
    • Little radioactive waste is produced
    • No loss of cooling problems exist
    • Plant decommissioning will be routine, when required
  • Modern Nuclear fission plants (Lecture #22) could be competitive with 3He fusion, however:
    • Policies limiting development of breeder reactors and/or reprocessing of spent fuel will severely limit long term viability of fission technology
    • Problems with waste disposal and decommissioning will add further uncertainty
    • Political viability remains uncertain due to perceived levels of risk - Brown's Ferry, Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, and other mishaps don't help.
    • Much of the rest of the world is headed in toward reliance on fission (see Abelson, 1996)
  • Terrestrial solar energy may be important regionally but will suffer from several practical limitations as a global energy source that can meet every growing demand (Lectures #3 and 40)
    • Geographical limits to direct application
    • Cost of storage and transport for indirect application
    • Net environmental impact of manufacturing and operation
    • Technical reliability
    • Unsubsidized cost
    • Greatest potential may be biologically catalyzed hydrogen generation for portable fuel
  • Lunar or satellite solar power needs to be evaluated against lunar 3He, but major technical and political issues remain to be resolved(Lectures 35 and 36)
    • Costs
    • Technical feasibility
    • Net environmental impact
    • Political viability of power beaming
  • Roles for governments
    • Maintain a favorable treaty, regulatory, and tax environment (Lectures 38 and 39)
    • Defend legal activities in space from illegal threats
    • Set and enforce safety and environmental standards through licensing authority
    • Be a customer for resources and services that fill legitimate public needs
    • Protect national interests as required 
  1. Abelson, P.H., 1996, Nuclear Power in East Asia, Science, v 272, April 26, 1996, p465.
  2. Schmitt, H.H., 1997, Interlune-Intermars Business Initiative: Returining to Deep Space. Journal of Aerospace Engineering, April 1997, 60-67.
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