NASA Dominates World Space Programs
NASA And India Sign Agreement For Future Cooperation
NASA And India Sign Agreement For Future Cooperation
KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - At a ceremony Friday at the Kennedy Space Center's visitor complex, NASA Administrator Michael Griffin and Indian Space Research Organization Chairman G. Madhavan Nair signed a framework agreement establishing the terms for future cooperation between the two agencies in the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes.
"I am honored to sign this agreement with the India Space Research Organization," Griffin said. "This agreement will allow us to cooperate effectively on a wide range of programs of mutual interest. India has extensive space-related experience, capabilities and infrastructure, and will continue to be a welcome partner in NASA's future space exploration activities."
According to the framework agreement, the two agencies will identify areas of mutual interest and seek to develop cooperative programs or projects in Earth and space science, exploration, human space flight and other activities. The agreement replaces a soon-to- expire agreement signed on Dec. 16, 1997, which fostered bilateral cooperation in the areas of Earth and atmospheric sciences.
In addition to a long history of cooperation in Earth science, NASA and the Indian Space Research Organization also are cooperating on India's first, mission to the moon, Chandrayaan-1, which will be launched later this year. NASA is providing two of the 11 instruments on the spacecraft: the moon mineralogy mapper instrument and the miniature synthetic aperture radar instrument.
For more information about NASA's programs, visit:
For more information about ISRO's programs, visit:
joins India's Moon mission - Astronomy.com
and India's ISRO to Collaborate on Human Spaceflight
This is a great way to make NASAs dollar go further. Collaboration with India's maturing space agency will open new possibilities with what NASA can accomplish with their budget. Contact the presidential candidates and your legislators and tell them that NASA can have ambitious goals and international collaboration will allow for those goals to be reached affordably while promoting world peace.
NASA To Work With India on Moon Mission
NASA Administrator Mike Griffin and Indian Space Research Organization Chairman G. Madhavan Nair signed an agreement today to put two NASA scientific instruments on India's maiden voyage to the moon. The Chandrayaan-1 lunar orbiter is expected to luanch in late 2007 or early 2008.
Image left: Indian Space Research Organization Chairman G. Madhavan Nair and NASA Administrator Mike Griffin exhange documents after signing the agreement. Photo Credit: Indian Space Research Organization.
Griffin is touring Indian Space Research Organization facilities this week. He will visit its satellite development center, its launch vehicle production center, and its launch site.
"It is my hope and belief that as we extend the reach of human civilization throughout the solar system, the United States and India will be partners on many more technically challenging and scientifically rewarding projects," Griffin said at a ceremony in Bangalore.
Artist's concept of Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft "I very much look forward to the opportunity to see first hand India's impressive space facilities, to meet with your scientists and engineers and to learn more about your remarkable work."
Chandrayaan-1 is a truly international mission, with payloads from Europe as well as the United States. NASA's contribution includes the Moon Mineralogy Mapper, designed to look for lunar mineral resources, and an instrument known as Mini-SAR, which will look for ice deposits in the moon's polar regions.
Data from the two instruments will contribute to NASA's increased understanding of the lunar environment as it implements the Vision for Space Exploration, which calls for robotic and human exploration of the moon's surface.
U.S.- India Space Cooperation
Sheet: US Department of State
As part of his overall effort to reinvigorate our relationship with India, President Bush issued a joint statement with then Indian Prime Minister Vajpayee on November 9, 2001. Among other issues, the two leaders agreed to initiate discussion on civil space cooperation. On January 12, 2004, President Bush and Prime Minister Vajpayee announced the Next Steps in Strategic Partnership (NSSP), which proposed expanded engagement on civilian nuclear activities, civilian space programs and high-technology trade based on a series of reciprocal steps. President Bush and Prime Minister Singh further expanded these commitments to civil space cooperation in their Joint Statement of July 18, 2005, pledging to build closer ties in space exploration, satellite navigation and launch, and in the commercial space arena through mechanisms such as the U.S.-India Working Group on Civil Space Cooperation (JWG).
The JWG held its inaugural meeting in Bangalore on June 29-30, 2005, and identified new and expanded areas for civil space cooperation. Progress has been made since on several issues, including negotiating of the Memorandums of Understanding to place two instruments provided by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on India's Chandrayaan-1 lunar mission, negotiations on space launch agreements, and discussions on promoting interoperability between Indian and U.S. civil space-based positioning, navigation and timing systems.
The Chandrayaan-1 mission is an important step forward in U.S.-India space ties. Negotiations have taken place for two NASA instruments -- a Miniature Synthetic Aperture Radar to map ice deposits in the Moon's polar regions and a Moon Mineralogy Mapper to assess mineral resources of the Moon -- to join India's instruments in mutual exploration of the Moon. The Chandrayaan-1 mission will be a major advance for U.S./Indian civil space cooperation, as well as for the scientific activities critical to President Bush's Vision for Space Exploration.
Once finalized, the Technology Safeguards Agreement and Commercial Space Launch Agreement together will facilitate further endeavors of commercial and civilian space cooperation.
The United States and India have been cooperating on space for decades. NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) cooperate with India on aerosol monitoring. NOAA is working with India on monitoring of drought and malaria outbreaks, and they have agreed in principle to establish an earth reception station in India to support worldwide timely environmental data collection. An agreement established over 8 years ago by NASA, NOAA, India’s Department of Space and India’s Department of Science and Technology in the area of Earth and atmospheric sciences has yielded cooperative efforts in measurement of tropical rainfall, long-range forecasting of regional climate over India, and improving the understanding of summer monsoon variability. India contracted with a major U.S. firm to develop an augmentation of the GPS navigation system to modernize its air traffic control system, with strong support from the Department of Transportation and the FAA. India participates in the international GLOBE program of science education supported by NASA, the National Science Foundation and the State Department. India and the U.S. also collaborate on international programs, including the International Charter for Space and Major Disasters, the COSPAS-SARSAT search and rescue program, and a telemedicine project in Afghanistan. NOAA, NASA, and other U.S. agencies are working with India through the intergovernmental Group on Earth Observations to develop and operate a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS).
NASA in Japan
The NASA Japan Representative
is based at the U.S. Embassy in Tokyo, Japan and is responsible for coordination
of NASA programs and interests in Japan and other
countries in the Asia Pacific Region. The NASA Japan Representative
works with regional aerospace officials and industry representatives on
key programs and serves as a local point of contact for NASA meetings and
travel in the region.
NASA Team In Japan
NASA Japan Representative
NASA ISS Liaison Director
NASA Hinode Chief Planner
NASA Technical Assistant
NASA ISS Liaison Administrative Assistant
Mail & Package Delivery
NASA to Discuss Supersonic Jet - SPACE.com
TOKYO (AP) - Stung by repeated setbacks, Japan's space agency plans to start talks next month with NASA about jointly developing a supersonic successor to the retired Concorde, an official said Monday.
Japan is trying to leapfrog ahead in the aerospace field with a plan to build a next-generation airliner that can fly between Tokyo and Los Angeles in about three hours. But a string of glitches, including a nose cone problem during the latest test flight in March, has led the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency to look for an international partner.
NASA Rejoins Japan In X-Ray Space Observatory Project - Science Daily
NASA Joins Japan in Exploring Asteroid - 1997 (519): 1 - ScienceNOW
Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer
and Japan to Cooperate on Asteroid Sample Return Mission
NASA and ESA Sign Agreements for Future Cooperation
Dwayne Brown/Michael Braukus
June 18, 2007
NASA and ESA Sign Agreements for Future Cooperation
PARIS -- At a ceremony held Monday at the International Paris Air Show at Le Bourget, France, NASA Administrator Michael Griffin and European Space Agency (ESA) Director General Jean-Jacques Dordain signed two agreements defining the terms of cooperation on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) Pathfinder mission.
Although it will operate over a different range of wavelengths, the James Webb Space Telescope is considered the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope. Its launch is targeted for 2013 and it will operate for at least five years.
The telescope is a mission of international cooperation between NASA, ESA and the Canadian Space Agency to investigate the origin and evolution of galaxies, stars and planetary systems.
At the heart of the observatory is a large telescope, which has a primary mirror measuring 21.3 feet in diameter (compared to 7.9 feet for Hubble) that provides a relatively large field of view.
A set of four sophisticated instruments, including a fine guidance sensor for precision pointing, will combine superb imaging capability at visible and infrared wavelengths with various spectroscopic modes to learn about the chemistry and evolution of objects in our universe.
The telescope will operate well outside the Earth's atmosphere at a spot in space called the second Lagrangian point or "L2" located 1 million miles -- or four times farther than the moon's orbit -- in the direction opposite the sun. From this location, the observatory is expected to revolutionize our view of the cosmos as Hubble has.
According to the agreement, NASA is responsible for the overall management and operation of the JWST mission and will build the spacecraft, the telescope and the platform that will house the instruments. ESA will provide an Ariane 5 ECA rocket for the telescope's launch.
NASA also will provide a major instrument, the Near-Infrared Camera, through the University of Arizona, Tucson. ESA will provide the Near-Infrared Spectrograph operating over similar wavelengths. NASA will provide the instrument's detectors, which will measure the wavelengths of light emanating from the stars being observed.
NASA also will provide the microshutters, which are used to select which star in the field of view will be observed by the detectors.
The third instrument on board is the Mid-Infrared Instrument. It is being built through a consortium of nationally funded European institutions, which are responsible for the instrument's optical assembly and NASA, with coordination through ESA. Canada will provide the fourth instrument on board, the Fine Guidance Sensor/Tuneable Filter Imager.
"The signing of this agreement on JWST, based on a long-standing and consolidated cooperation between ESA and NASA, will make history once more," said Dordain. "In particular, we are very proud to use Ariane 5 to put this great observatory into space."
"We're delighted to have ESA's participation on the James Webb Space Telescope," said Griffin. "The tremendous scientific success of the Hubble Space Telescope can be attributed to the cooperative efforts between our two agencies. We expect that, as Hubble's successor, the James Webb Space Telescope also will make profound astronomical observations and discoveries. When it does, we can be proud that it, too, is a project of international cooperation."
At today's ceremony, the leaders of both agencies also signed an official agreement on the ESA-initiated Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) Pathfinder mission, currently targeted for launch in early 2010. LISA Pathfinder is aimed at demonstrating the technologies needed for a planned future joint ESA-NASA LISA mission that will detect gravitational waves in space and test the theory of general relativity.
Under this agreement, ESA will design, develop, launch and operate the LISA Pathfinder spacecraft. A consortium of European scientific institutes will provide the LISA Technology Package, which features a sensor to detect non-gravitational forces on the spacecraft.
NASA will provide the Disturbance Reduction System Package. That package will work in tandem with the technology package and consists of thrusters that produce a minute level of force, combined with control systems and software.
- end -
delays Europe's lab launch
US space agency Nasa has delayed the launch of Europe's Columbus module to the International Space Station (ISS). Europe's largest single contribution to the ISS has been rescheduled for lift-off no earlier than 6 December. - BBC NEWS
on Solar Orbiter Mission ESA and NASA are discussing
NASA, ONE ESA, TWO PARTNERS
and ESA sign agreement on the James Webb Space Telescope
and ESA signed the JWST MOU at the Paris airshow on June 18, 2007
ESA and NASA extend ties with
major new cross-support agreement
ESA's G Winters & NASA's WH Gerstenmaier
On 21 March ESA and NASA signed an agreement in Washington, DC, extending the two agencies' long-standing cooperation in the areas of satellite tracking, spacecraft navigation and mission operations.
The agencies' new 'Network and Operations Cross-support' agreement covers the ongoing provision to each other of services for missions where no specific Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) is in place, typically due to the short-term nature or limited scope of the support.
This type of support has been provided in the past, but was limited only to the sharing of ground tracking stations and had to be arranged for each mission separately through a Letter of Agreement (LoA), which was a long process.
Agreement covers tracking, navigation and systems sharing
The new agreement was signed in Washington, DC, by William H. Gerstenmaier, NASA Associate Administrator for Space Operations, and Gaele Winters, ESA Director for Operations and Infrastructure.
The agreement constitutes a major milestone in the long-standing cooperative relations between ESA and NASA, and covers cross-support in the following areas:
Enhanced effectiveness, reduced risk for both agencies
In particular, the bi-directional sharing of TT&C services will enhance effectiveness and reduce risk for both agencies.
This interoperability will benefit both by providing immediate back-up in case a mission's prime ground station is not available due, for example, to local weather interference or earthquakes, by ensuring additional station support during critical mission phases such as launch, orbit entry or manoeuvres, and by expanding station resources when ground tracking coverage might otherwise be missed.
ECC in ESOC
Station controller at work in ESOC's ESTRACK Control Centre
Very Long Baseline Interferometry refers to accurately locating spacecraft using highly sophisticated signal processing techniques and is achieved using Delta DOR (Delta Differential One-Way Ranging) technology, used by both NASA and ESA.
Since 2005, ESA has installed Delta DOR receivers at both of the Agency's 35-metre antenna deep-space stations, DS1 in New Norcia, Australia, and DS2 in Cebreros, Spain.
The first application of the new agreement is foreseen during the critical Launch and Early Orbit Phase (LEOP) for NASA's upcoming Dawn and Phoenix missions. ESA will furnish support via the Agency's Perth and Kourou 15-metre antenna stations.
ESA's tracking stations network - ESTRACK - is a worldwide system of ground stations providing links between satellites in orbit and the ESA's European Space Operations Centre (ESOC), in Darmstadt, Germany. The core ESTRACK network comprises 11 terminals sited at eight stations in five countries.
Dr Manfred Warhaut, Head of Mission Operations
• ESOC virtual tour (http://esamultimedia.esa.int/multimedia/esoc/virtualtour/content_full.html)
NASA in Australia
To track spacecraft continuously, a network of deep space stations must have at least three equidistant receiving points on the Earth’s surface. NASA’s first location in California had already been set up in 1958. Therefore the other two stations would have to be one-third of the globe (120° longitude) either side of this location.
Woomera, South Australia
During the 1960s, six other stations were set up in Australia.
Muchea, Near Perth, Western Australia
Carnarvon, Western Australia
Cooby Creek. Queensland
Honeysuckle Creek Tracking Station
The original Project Mercury stations such as Muchea, near Perth in Australia, were mostly built from off the shelf and military equipment, progressing to a more substantial installation for the Gemini Program.
NASA chooses Woomera, South Australia for rocket launch site
Aug 21, 2006 ... NASA has announced that rockets will be launched from Woomera in outback South Australia to service the International Space Station (ISS) ...
NYBRO - Australian Space Agency Emblem
South Australia, facts
You’d be hard-pushed to find a town with as bad a reputation as Woomera. For years, it’s very existence was hidden, as it was used as a base by the American and British military for testing weapons/ developing nuclear technology/ experimenting on aliens/ murdering children (depending which conspiracy theory you choose to believe).
When the military secrecy was toned down in 1982, and people began to realise it was there, the Australian government started shunting asylum seekers into the South Australian desert town.
Until it was shut down, the detention camp, complete with sewn-together lips and rowdy protestors, was the town’s focal image.
Whilst certainly not worth visiting as a holiday destination in its own right, it’s well worth a stop on the drive from Adelaide to Alice Springs. This is for two reasons. The first is that there is nowhere else for absolutely miles around, and the second is that it has a few curiosities worthy of a poke around.
As you enter, you can see that Woomera isn’t trying to hide its military heritage. There are rockets, tanks and big model aeroplanes everywhere. Even the local school has assorted weapons strewn all over the front lawn. All of them look strangely plastic however, like giant children’s papier mache models.
The Woomera Heritage Centre (08 8673 7042) is the hub of the tourist activity. You can immediately see the American influence – there’s a bowling alley inside, which is probably the last thing to expect in the middle of the outback. It’s not very up to date – you have to mark your scores yourself - but for sheer surreal value, chucking a few balls at the pins has to be done.
In the centre, and in the nearby museum, you can get a heavily sanitised version of what’s gone on in the area since men in uniform started arriving, and find out about the space exploration that has been conducted from the town’s observatory. Those wishing to stay a little longer can organise a tour of the rocket range.
If you want to get a little closer to rockets that have already been fired, then head on out to the nearby Lake Hart. For most of the year this is pure salt, and provides a marvellous desert landscape, with the train line running past. Don’t even think about stepping into the ‘waters’ though – a sign warns against that. Apparently there is plenty of ordnance in there that is still unexploded, and going to find it would be extremely unwise.
Exoatmospheric Kill Vehicle (EKV) being developed for the National Missile Defense Program.
Russia Approve Next ISS Crew - Space.com
MOSCOW (AP) -- Russia's Federal Space Agency and NASA have approved the crew of the next mission to the international space station, a Russian agency spokesman said Tuesday. Russian cosmonaut Sergei Krikalev and NASA astronaut John Phillips, who have both done stints on the orbital station, will be preparing for a launch on a Soyuz spacecraft in April, said Vyacheslav Davidenko.
Sides of the Moon: Our Story of the Cold War Space Race:"
- Co-operation with Russia
in space gets major boost
U.S.-Israel Cooperation in Space
by Shira Schoenberg and Mitchell
Almost from its inception in 1983, the Israel Space Agency (ISA) has been working with the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Both the U.S. and Israel have benefited and their cooperative research efforts have blossomed to the point where the first Israeli astronaut will soon fly on an American space shuttle.
As a small country with limited resources, Israel has had limited opportunities for space research. Still, in recent years, Israel has begun to develop powerful rockets and launch satellites. In addition, it has long been involved in space-related research that can be conducted on earth.
ISA was created in 1983, has a total employee/contractor staff of about 15-20 people and an annual budget of approximately $2 million. It is administratively under the Ministry of Science. ISA develops Israeli space policy, coordinates the national space program and international cooperation, supports applied and theoretical studies and helps Israeli industry in developing and marketing space-related products.
In contrast, the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was created approximately 35 years ago and is part of the U.S. aerospace industry, which supports nearly one million jobs. NASA had a 1999 budget of $13.6 billion. The goals of NASA are to explore, use and enable the development of space; advance scientific knowledge; and research, develop, verify and transfer space-related technologies.
NASA and ISA began to work together in 1985, only two years after ISA’s inception. Under contract from ISA, the Institute of Petroleum Research and Geophysics in Israel began to operate a NASA-furnished MOBLAS-2 mobile satellite laser ranging (SLR) station at the Bar-Giora Geophysical Satellite Observatory. This SLR, located in the Judean Mountains, tracked a complement of retroreflector satellites and provided data to measure tectonic plate and regional fault motion (data used to study earthquakes), polar motion and earth rotation. The project was renewed in 1990, when NASA’s chief of International Planning and Programs said, “NASA considers that major achievements have come from the operation of the Bar-Giora SLR Station by the Israeli Space Agency.” The SLR operated for another four years until it was discontinued due to ISA budget considerations.
In 1986, NASA and ISA signed a general agreement to exchange existing scientific and technical information. The U.S. agreed to give Israel information such as NASA aerospace and technical reports. Israel, in turn, would give NASA scientific reports and working papers in areas such as aeronautics, astronautics, chemistry, engineering, mathematics and computer sciences.
Then U.S. Ambassador to Israel William Harrop said in 1992, “Israel needs to know as much about the U.S. space program as possible, and, conversely, the U.S. needs to know as much as possible about Israel’s space program.”
Since 1992, NASA and the J. Blaustein Institute for Desert Research of the Ben-Gurion University of the Negev have collaborated on the AERONET program, a study of the relation between atmospheric and surface properties in desert transition areas. NASA provides equipment, specifically sunphotometers and radiometers, to Ben-Gurion, which sets them up at Sede-Boder and Bar-Giora. Ben-Gurion scientists then monitor aerosol and surface spectral properties and conducts short experiments that relate these measurements to space observations. AERONET is an international program in which all of the countries involved are constantly sharing data regarding the aerosol measurements. Aerosols are a type of pollution and AERONET is beneficial to scientists worldwide who are trying to develop ways to curb air pollution.
Also in 1992, the space shuttle Endeavor (STS-47) was launched with 180 Oriental hornets. The experiment investigated the effects of near-zero gravity on the hornets, their physical and physiological development and their nest-building instincts. The flight hardware was built by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd. (IAI) with the support of ISA, and the principal investigator for the project was from Tel-Aviv University. The ultimate goal of the project was to discover how to prevent astronauts from suffering headaches, nausea, vomiting and weakness during missions. These symptoms are thought to be caused by “disorientation due to lack of gravity perception,” according to Prof. Jacob Ishay of Tel Aviv University, and are obstacles to sending people to space stations or on extended trips to other planets. Some scientific data was obtained from the experiment.
On October 2, 1996, NASA and ISA signed an umbrella agreement "for cooperation in the peaceful use of space." The agreement says that NASA and ISA will work closely to develop cooperative programs of mutual interest in the use of space for research and practical applications.
In 1996, NASA and ISA concluded one specific agreement for the provision of a permanent Global Positioning System (GPS) ground station, which would provide a critical reference point for measurements of motion over the Mediterranean and Middle East regions. The station has not been installed, however, due to a lack of agreement of the necessary type of station.
Since 1997, NASA and the Israel Meteorological Service of Hebrew University of Jerusalem, in conjunction with ISA, have cooperated on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Ground Validation Program. In this program, a satellite measures tropical rain and transmits the data to a ground validation system that ensures that the data is valid. A ground validation site is located at Hebrew University and a researcher from Hebrew University is a TRMM Science Team Member. One finding of this research was that dust from Africa interferes with rainfall in North Africa and the Middle East because the dust gets into clouds.
During 1998, two Israeli microgravity life science experiments were flown on NASA’s Columbia space shuttle. The first experiment studied the early development of mice embryos in microgravity. The second investigated the growth of osteoblast cells in a microgravity environment.
In June 1999, NASA and ISA signed an agreement to share information through NASA’s Earth Observation System Data Information System (EOSDIS), making Israel the 10th country hooked up to the line. ISA will establish an EOSDIS node, to be maintained by the Inter-University Computation Center (IUCC) at Tel-Aviv University. The node will provide an interface between EOSDIS and ISA’s Earth science and environmental observation data and information system. ISA will get information from EOSDIS that can be used for weather prediction, agriculture and meteorology. In exchange, Israeli universities and research institutes will contribute their own Earth observation data. The line will cost the Israeli Science Ministry $30,000 and each university hooked up to it $10,000 a year.
Israel is one of more than 80 countries that currently participate in the Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) program, an educational venture that is funded by NASA and run out of the White House. The GLOBE program is an effort to link schoolchildren to scientists. The children collect environmental data, which teachers submit via the Internet to a worldwide database. The database is then available for the students to compare their data to that of other schools, and for scientists to use the information for cutting-edge research. Fifty-one Israeli schools are now involved with GLOBE.
In July 1999, U.S. President Bill Clinton and Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak agreed to establish a committee made up of representatives of NASA and the ISA for the "development of practical applications in the peaceful use of space."
In October 1999, Ben-Gurion University researchers joined an international project to map the earth sponsored by NASA, the German space agency DARA and the Italian Space Agency ASI. The space shuttle Endeavor is going to scan the earth using a new radar-scanning method called interformetry. Data recorded by the radar will be used to produce topographic maps of areas that have never been mapped before. These include land at the equator, in Africa and in South America. The Israeli team will support the project from the ground by operating calibration targets and radar-retrieval systems in the Negev (Jerusalem Post, Nov. 10, 1999).
NASA administrator Daniel Goldin visited Israel in August 2001 and noted that the Israel Space Agency has one of the smallest budgets of any space agency in the world, but still promotes "some really world-class research" (Jerusalem Post, August 17, 2001).
In July 1998, two Israeli Air Force Pilots, Col. Ilan Ramon (photo shown above) and Lt. Col. Yitzhak May, began training at NASA. Ramon, a former F-16 squadron commander, trained at the Johnson Space Center in Houston and was chosen to be the first Israeli astronaut. May was his backup.
Ramon was a payload specialist, meaning that his training was limited to work on this mission. One of the main projects Ramon was responsible for was called MEIDEX (Mediterranean - Israel Dust Experiment). It called for Ramon to observe and take pictures of atmospheric aerosols in the Mediterranean area using ultraviolet, visible and near infrared array-detector cameras. The cameras take calibrated images of desert and transported pollution aerosols over land and sea, which were to provide scientific information about atmospheric aerosols and the influence of global changes on the climate, as well as complementary data for Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments. Researchers from Tel Aviv University were responsible for the scientific aspect of the experiment. The TAU team also worked with a U.S. company, Orbital Sciences Corp., to construct and test special special flight instruments for the project.
During the shuttle flight Ramon conducted a number of other experiments as well. One of these was designed to assess the efficacy of probiotic bacteria in strengthening the immune system, digestion, and calcium balance of astronauts in space. Another tested a powdered milk formula designed to ameliorate problems faced by astronauts, such as increased risk of infections, osteoporosis, diarrhea, and kidney stones, associated with working in zero gravity and breathing recycled air. An experiment designed by scientists from the Israel Aerospace Medicine Institute in Jerusalem and the Johnson Space Center in Houston investigated a theory that living organism are in meteors traveling between planets. Israeli students at the Yonatan Netanyahu ORT High School also designed a project for Ramon. This one involved studying the formation of fibers in outer space. (IsraelLine, March 14, 2000).
The seven member crew of STS 107, including Col. Ramon, successfully launched aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia at 10:39 a.m. EST from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida on January 16, 2003, for a 16-day mission. After what NASA officials described as a successful scientific mission, the Columbia was set to return to earth on February 1. Just a few minutes before landing, however, something went horribly wrong and, tragically, the shuttle came apart. The crew was lost.
Sources: NASA and press reports.
NASA CSA(Canadian Space Agency) Agreement
Memorandum of Understanding between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the United States and the Canadian Space Agency
SCISAT-1 Mission Was 21st Consecutive Successful Launch for Pegasus
(Dulles, VA 13 August 2003) -- Orbital Sciences Corporation (NYSE: ORB) announced today that its Pegasus® space launch vehicle successfully launched the Scientific Satellite (SCISAT-1) Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) spacecraft for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Canadian Space Agency. In a mission that took place on Tuesday, August 12, from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California, the 330-pound SCISAT-1 spacecraft was accurately delivered into its targeted orbit approximately 400 miles above the Earth, inclined at 73.9 degrees to the equator.
The powered flight sequence for the SCISAT-1 mission took about 11 minutes, from the time the Pegasus rocket was released from its L-1011 carrier aircraft at approximately 10:10 p.m. (EDT) to the time that the satellite was deployed into orbit. It was the 35th launch of the Pegasus rocket and its 21st consecutive successful mission.
Pegasus is the world's leading launch system for the deployment of small satellites into low-Earth orbit. Its patented air-launch system, in which the rocket is launched from beneath Orbital's "Stargazer" L-1011 carrier aircraft over the ocean, reduces cost and provides customers with unparalleled flexibility to operate from virtually anywhere on Earth with minimal ground support requirements.
Pegasus is the only small launch vehicle to have earned NASA's Category 3 certification, which allows the U.S. space agency to launch its most valuable payloads aboard the rocket. A Category 3 certification is achieved through a long-term record of highly reliable launch services, such as the current record of 21 consecutive successful Pegasus missions carried out since 1997.
The Amazing Canadarm2
April 18, 2001 -- Building a brand new space station is a big job. Just ask the assembly crews of the International Space Station (ISS). They have to attach modules weighing tons, extend solar panels longer than a bus, and haul equipment to and from the space shuttle. It sounds like these hardworking astronauts could use a hand!
Now, thanks to the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), they're going to get one.
When the space shuttle Endeavour blasts off on mission STS-100, one of its passengers will be a new assistant for the crew of the International Space Station -- an extraordinary robotic arm called Canadarm2.
"Canadarm2 is a bigger, smarter and more grown-up version of the shuttle's robotic arm," said Chris Lorenz, CSA's manager of mission operations. "It's part of Canada's investment in the space station program."
Canada's two-armed robot, named Dextre for its nimble capabilities, should give astronauts a break from basic repair and maintenance tasks outside of the growing space station. The Japanese Logistics Pressurized (JLP) Module marks the first of three components for that nation's massive Kibo science lab.
- Space Station Node 2 'Moves' Toward Major Milestone
International contractor Alenia Spazio, based in Rome, Italy, built Node 2 at its facility in Torino, Italy, under an agreement between NASA and the ESA...
STATES OF AMERICA and ITALY
Station Cupola Arrives at NASA KSC From Italy
ROSA - Romanian Space Agency
AEROSPATIAL in Europa - PDF
agencies will 'co-ordinate'
Fourteen space agencies have agreed to co-ordinate future space exploration of the Moon and Mars.
They have published a document that contains their common space goals, agreed after months of discussion.
The document outlines the rationale for society to explore space and the current interest in returning to the Moon and exploring Mars.
The document is non-binding, instead proposing a framework for the future co-ordination of space programmes.
The US space agency (Nasa) says the document, called The Global Exploration Strategy: The Framework for Co-ordination, will help different countries exchange information on their space plans.
In addition, it will help identify gaps, duplication and potential areas for collaboration.
Nasa said the framework document was "an important step in an evolving process towards a comprehensive global approach to space exploration".
The agency added that the contents were consistent with "ongoing bilateral and multilateral discussions" on co-operating with other agencies.
The UK's science and innovation minister Malcolm Wicks said: "The Framework for Co-ordination sets out a common vision for a new era of international collaboration.
"I welcome the fact that the UK can use this to inform our national plans while joining together in a truly global endeavour."
The US, Russian, Chinese and European space agencies have all outlined programmes of exploration of the Moon and Mars.
The European Space Agency's (Esa) exploration roadmap calls for a mission to return samples of rock and soil from Mars.
But experts say this the costs and technological demands of this project would be too much for any one agency to shoulder.
And both Esa and Nasa say they are keen to replicate the success of the Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn.
But the first crucial mission in Esa's roadmap is facing a tough test, as ministers decide whether to approve a costly upgrade to the ExoMars rover project.
Observers fear Esa delegates could baulk at the expense - estimated at tens of millions of euros - of launching the rover with an orbiter to relay data back to Earth.
China has already said it will launch a joint mission with Russia to Mars, calling this a "milestone" in space co-operation between the two countries. But Russia last month said the US had rejected its offer to join forces on exploring the Moon.
Nasa wants to send astronauts back to the lunar surface by 2020, with a view to building a permanent lunar base.
Story from BBC NEWS:
Published: 2007/05/31 17:15:55 GMT
© BBC MMVIII
Space powers join forces to hit Moon and Mars
By Lucy Sherriff
Published Friday 1st June 2007 15:30 GMT
As NASA greenlights its next Shuttle launch (8 June, for those keeping track), 14 international space agencies have agreed to cooperate on a rather more grandiose mission: bringing samples of the Martian surface back to Earth.
The group, which includes NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA), has published a document, entitled The Global Exploration Strategy: The Framework for Co-ordination. This sets out a non-binding agreement of common space goals, and how the participating nations will cooperate to achieve them.
|KARI - Korea Aerospace Research
Dr. Hong-Yul Paik Director, Satellite Operation and Application - PDF
|FAIR USE NOTICE: This page contains copyrighted material the use of which has not been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. Pegasus Research Consortium distributes this material without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information for research and educational purposes. We believe this constitutes a fair use of any such copyrighted material as provided for in 17 U.S.C § 107. If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond fair use, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.|
Webpages © 2001-2008
Blue Knight Productions